12 March 2018
The study questions of the course included for example, what role do alliances and international organizations play in Global Politics, and due to the increase of INGOs and their activities, is power shifting away from the state?
First, Prof. Heininen described and analyzed a change in different categories of international actors in international politics and IR from the Cold War period to global politics emphasizing a power shift from states to transnational corporations based on the growing importance of ‘geoeconomics’.
Second, he presented an applied list of relevant (international) actors of Arctic resource geopolitics with an emphasis of new actors, such as state-owned enterprises, sovereign Wealth Funds and platforms for international dialogue. Third, he emphasized that (international) actors in politics are always with their interests, and those can cooperative, competitive or confronting. Based on that there can be different kind of coalitions or alliances.
Final, according to Heininen in global politics matters not only who are actors and what are their interests, but also what kind of behaviors there are by the actors taking into consideration their interests. Here the high stability of the Arctic is an interesting, and encouraging example, of behavior by the Arctic states and other local actors to emphasize cooperation and trying to find common solutions based on common interests and certain prerequisites making the common interests possible, obvious and attractive.
Last edited: 12 December 2018
Emelyanova, A. & Rautio, A. (2019). A Century of Demographic Ageing in Arctic Canada (1950–2050). Journal of Population Ageing 12 (1), 25-50. 10.1007/s12062-017-9211-5.
Emelyanova, A. (2017). Population projections of the Arctic by levels of education. IIASA Working Paper. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: WP-17-022
Winiger, P., Andersson, A., Eckhardt, S., Stohl, A., Semiletov, I.P., Dudarev, O.V., Charkin, A., Shakhova, N., Klimont, Z. , Heyes, C. , & Gustafsson, Ö. (2017). Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 (7), E1054-E1061. 10.1073/pnas.1613401114.
Emelyanova, A. & Rautio, A. (2017). Population ageing dynamics in the North Atlantic region of the Arctic. In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2016. Eds. Scherbov, S. & Sanderson, W., pp. 067-88 Vienna, Austria: Austrian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-3-7001-8151-410.1553/populationyearbook2016s067.
Landauer, M. & Juhola, S. (2017). Loss and damage from climate change: implications for the Arctic. In: Loss and Damage from Climate Change: Concepts, Principles and Policy Options. Eds. Mechler, R. , Bower, L., Linnerooth-Bayer, J., Schinko, T. , & Surmiski, S., Springer. (Submitted)
Halinen, H. (2016). The Arctic Council in Perspective: Moving Forward. In: Arctic Yearbook 2016. Eds. Heininen, L., Exner-Pirot, H., & Plouffe, J., pp. 20-23 Akureyi, Iceland: Northern Research Forum.
Reissell, A. (2016). IIASA Arctic Futures Initiative And Finland, Country Of/On Extremes? Geoinformatics Research Papers 4 (BS4002) 10.2205/2016BS04Sochi.
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
Phone: (+43 2236) 807 0 Fax:(+43 2236) 71 313