Basic technology research

Basic technology-related research in 2013 focused on empirical historical research on formative phases, technology scaling, and output measures of technological change - as well as prototyping new technology modeling approaches.

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Bicycle wheel

In terms of systems hierarchy, technological change arises from the spatial and temporal diffusion of individual innovations all the way up to the emergence of new technological combinations that could fundamentally redefine products, services, and even entire markets.

TNT’s basic research consequently focuses on the systemic aspects of technological change and draws on empirical case studies, associated "meta" analyses, novel modeling approaches, as well as scenario studies and robustness analysis to inform technology policy choices from a systemic perspective.

Empirical technology research

Empirical research by TNT in 2013 aimed at an elucidation of the early or so-called formative phases of technologies, on technology scaling analysis, and on alternative, output-based, measures of technological change.  More

Agent-based modeling

Research on further development of agent-based modeling techniques related to technology transitions continued in 2013 under the leadership of Tieju Ma. More

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Last edited: 22 May 2014


Arnulf Grubler

Distinguished Emeritus Research Scholar Transformative Institutional and Social Solutions Research Group - Energy, Climate, and Environment Program

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
Phone: (+43 2236) 807 0 Fax:(+43 2236) 71 313